There are controversial diagnoses for personality disorders. There has been no consensus on how to treat these disorders nor has there been any explanation on how they are triggered. At least three symptoms should be present to make a proper diagnosis for each type of personality disorder.
Anti-Social or Dissocial Personality Disorder
- Anti-social people have no regards for social norms, obligations or rules. They act as rudely and unacceptably as possible and are very irresponsible.
- Unconcerned and callous about their behaviour and how they make other people feel. They never feel guilty about something or learn from past misgivings. They blame others for their problems or justify why they have done something wrong.
- Do not like frustration and are at risk for being violent and aggressive.
- Do not know how to cope with forming a lone-term relationship.
Anxious or Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Persistent shyness, apprehension, tension, and insecurity which leads to restrictions in their lifestyles.
- Too concerned about being rejected or criticised in work or social situations which leads to avoiding any activity that may involve relating with other people.
- Believes that he is unlikeable, socially inept, less important, and undeserving than others which lead to doubting if he should get involved with other people or to go into relationships unless he is sure that he is liked.
Dependant Personality Disorder
- Allows other people to make important decisions for him and has very limited capability to make good everyday decisions if not reassured excessively.
- Being helpless and uncomfortable when he is alone and feels anxiety when abandoned by their family or loved one because they fear that they cannot take care of themselves.
- Do not want to impose on other people, especially to their loved ones. By being this way, they become subordinates and compliant to other people.
Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder
Borderline and impulsive types make up the two kinds of emotionally unstable personality disorder. These two subtypes share very similar symptoms and characteristics:
- They cannot plan ahead and they do not have self-control. They have sudden bursts of anger which leads to violent behaviour especially if they are challenged and prevented by other people.
- They tend to be impulsive without thinking of the consequences from their actions.
The Impulsive type
These people are characterized as being emotionally unstable and have problems controlling their impulses. They have violent and aggressive behaviour especially when they are being criticized.
The Borderline type
These people are also emotionally unstable and they suffer from doubting their own self-image, sexual preferences and goals which causes distress for them. They feel empty and this can lead to self mutilation and feelings of suicide. These people are also prone in getting unstable relationships which causes continuous emotional crises. The borderlines would tolerate this kind of relationship because they fear being abandoned.
Treatments and causes
The diagnosis and treatment for emotionally unstable personality disorder is very controversial. To date, no consensus has been reached on how to treat the disorder.
Some patients find that being honest and open about their problems which makes them upset. By being open, it enables the patients to identify the risky situations which would set them off. The patients can even make strategies to avoid being set off. The patient should consult a professional to supervise and help them through this process.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Very theatrical; gives exaggerated and self-dramatizations to express emotions
- Easily influenced by other people’s wants
- Want activities that are exciting and make them the center of attention. They want to be appreciated by others.
- Too concerned with their physical attractiveness
- Will appear very seductive and inappropriate in some ways
- Can become very manipulative of others to get what they want.
- They can be easily hurt when criticized.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Self important and arrogant
- They think that they are very special beings and only special beings like themselves can truly understand them.
- Have fantasies regarding excessive achievements and successes
- Very envious of other people and think that other people are envious of them as well
- Want to be the center of attention
- Do not have empathy: do want to sympathize with other people’s feelings
- Exploits other people to get what they want
Obsessive-Compulsive or Anankastic Personality Disorder
- Have excessive feelings of doubt and caution. They strictly adhere to rules, orders, lists, and are notoriously perfectionists.
- Stubborn and rigid in their outlook but pedantic in doing things right.
- Pleasurable and close relationships are hard to maintain because they prefer to be productive and meet the standards of their work. This puts off other people because obsessive compulsive people expect that other people will follow the same standards as they.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
- Very sensitive to rejection or failure
- Are suspicious and would misconstrue other people’s friendly behaviour as unfriendly and hostile. They are also suspicious of their sexual partner’s fidelity
- Holds grudges and will not forgive injuries or insults.
- Believes in conspiracy theories of events which affects their lives and the world
- Is constantly preoccupied with personal privileges and rights and has the belief that this are violated even when they are not.
- Self centred and important
Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Finds pleasure in very few aspects of life
- Are not affected by praise and criticism and are insensitive to norms and standards set by society
- Unemotional, distant, cold and finds it very hard to express warmth or anger to others
- Head is filled with fantasies and introspective
- Want to be alone and do not want to be in relationships.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
- Cold, strange, eccentric and is aloof
- have unusual beliefs in magic which influences his way of behaving
- have a hard time maintaining relationships; they tend to withdraw from society
- thinks obsessively about a thing and is unable to let it go which would result to violence or inappropriate sexual behaviour
- have thoughts about paranoia and is overly suspicious
- have perceptions of ‘voices’, ‘bodily experiences’ and ‘visions’.
- Have violent ‘psychotic’ episodes